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Activation of Signaling Cascades by Weak Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields
18/10/2017

Activation of Signaling Cascades by Weak Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

Einat Kapri-Pardes, Tamar Hanoch, Galia Maik-Rachline, Manuel Murbach, Patricia L. Bounds, Niels Kuster, and Rony Seger Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 43, pp. 1533–1546, online October 16, 2017, doi: 10.1159/000481977

Results from recent studies suggest that extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) interfere with intracellular signaling pathways related to proliferative control. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), central signaling components that regulate essentially all stimulated cellular processes, include the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) that are extremely sensitive to extracellular cues. Anti-phospho-ERK antibodies serve as a readout for ERK1/2 activation and are able to detect minute changes in ERK stimulation. The objective of this study was to explore whether activation of ERK1/2 and other signaling cascades can be used as a readout for responses of a variety of cell types, both transformed and non-transformed, to ELF-MF. We applied ELF-MF at various field strengths and time periods to eight different cell types with an exposure system housed in a tissue culture incubator and followed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt by western blotting. We found that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is increased in response to ELF-MF. However, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is likely too low to induce ELF-MF-dependent proliferation or oncogenic transformation. The p38 MAPK was very slightly phosphorylated, but JNK or Akt were not. The effect on ERK1/2 was detected for exposures to ELF-MF strengths as low as 0.15 µT and was maximal at ∼10 µT. We also show that ERK1/2 phosphorylation is blocked by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium, indicating that the response to ELF-MF may be exerted via NADP oxidase similar to the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in response to microwave radiation. Our results further indicate that cells are responsive to ELF-MF at field strengths much lower than previously suspected and that the effect may be mediated by NADP oxidase. However, the small increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation is probably insufficient to affect proliferation and oncogenic transformation. Therefore, the results cannot be regarded as proof of the involvement of ELF-MF in cancer in general or childhood leukemia in particular.

The scientific and technical impact of the study can be summarized as:

  • Phosphorylation of the ERK1/2A kinases can be used as a readout for exposure to ELF-MF in a variety of transformed and non-transformed cells.  
  • COS7 and HeLa cell are responsive to ELF-MF at field strengths as low as as low as 0.15 µT, much lower than previously suspected.
  • Phosphorylation occurs in all cells of the exposed cultures rather than in only subpopulations of cells, and the phosphorylated ERK1/2 is distributed mostly in the cytosol.
  • The level of phosphorylation observed in response to exposure to ELF-MF at all strengths is too low to induce any physiological or pathological effects by themselves.
PUBLICATIONS

13/09/2017

Contact
nk@itis.ethz.ch

 

Novel hyperthermia applicator system allows adaptive treatment planning: Preliminary clinical results in tumour-bearing animals

S. Dressel, M.-C. Gosselin, M. H. Capstick, E. Carrasco, M. S. Weyland, S. Scheidegger, E. Neufeld, N. Kuster, S. Bodis, and C. Rohrer Bley, Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, online 11 September, 2017, doi: 10.1111/vco.12340

 
PUBLICATIONS

20/07/2017

 

On the Use of Conformal Models and Methods in Dosimetry for Non-Uniform Field Exposure

Dragan Poljak, Mario Cvetković, Oriano Bottauscio, Akimasa Hirata, Ilkka Laakso, Esra Neufeld, Sylvain Reboux, Craig Warren, Antonis Giannopolous, and Fumie Costen, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, online 18 July, 2017, doi: 10.1109/TEMC.2017.2723459

 
PUBLICATIONS

17/07/2017

Contact
nk@itis.ethz.ch

 

Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

Tianwu Xie, Niels Kuster, and Habib Zaidi, Physics in Medicine & Biology, Volume 62, Issue 15, pp. 6185–6206, online 13 July 2017, doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/aa75b4

 
PUBLICATIONS

01/06/2017

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nk@itis.ethz.ch

 

Noninvasive Deep Brain Stimulation via Temporally Interfering Electric Fields

Nir Grossman, David Bono, Nina Dedic, Suhasa B. Kodandaramaiah, Andrii Rudenko, Ho-Jun Suk, Antonino M. Cassara, Esra Neufeld, Niels Kuster, Li-Huei Tsai, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, and Edward S. Boyden, Cell, Volume 169, Issue 6, pp. 1029–1041, online 1 June 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.05.024

 
PUBLICATIONS

05/04/2017

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nk@itis.ethz.ch

 

Life-Time Dosimetric Assessment for Mice and Rats Exposed in Reverberation Chambers for the Two-Year NTP Cancer Bioassay Study on Cell Phone Radiation

Yijian Gong, Myles H. Capstick, Sven Kuehn, Perry F. Wilson, John M. Ladbury, Galen Koepke, David L. McCormick, Ronald L. Melnick, and Niels Kuster, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, online 17 March 2017, doi: 10.1109/TEMC.2017.2665039